In Birmingham, the Freedom Riders were beaten with baseball bats, chains, lead pipes, and stones. They were arrested by police who led them across the border into Tennessee and let them go. They reorganized and rode to Montgomery, where they were met with more violence, and Lewis was hit in the head with a wooden crate. He later said: “We were determined not to let any act of violence keep us from our goal. We knew our lives could be threatened, but we had made up our minds not to turn back.” Throughout his life, Lewis expressed the need to engage in “good trouble, necessary trouble” to achieve change.